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Climate of Kazakhstan

     The climate of Kazakhstan is sharply continental. The continental climate of Kazakhstan is manifested in a number of its features. These include: a large difference between winter and summer temperatures, dry air, a small amount of precipitation in most of the country, long harsh winter and short summer in the North, short winter and hot summer in the South.
The slope of the earth's axis is the reason that different amounts of sunlight fall on different parts of the Earth. The geographical position of Kazakhstan in the latitudinal respect corresponds to the Mediterranean countries with humid subtropical climate, and Central Europe, which has a moderately continental climate. 
Since our country is located in the center of a large continent Eurasia, the climate is characterized by a sharp continental. Since the country is at a considerable distance (thousands of kilometers) from the oceans and seas, their mitigating impact on the climate is negligible. Kazakhstan is located in the southern part of the temperate climatic zone.
Four seasons (summer, autumn, winter, spring) are clearly expressed in the Republic. Winter is ruled by a strong Siberian frosts. Summer dominated by tropical air masses formed over Kazakhstan and Central Asia. The amplitude of summer and winter temperatures increases the continental climate. Distribution of air temperature on the territory of Kazakhstan.
The vast territory of Kazakhstan, especially the atmospheric circulation and the variety of terrain, the amount of absorbed and reflected radiation affect the air temperature. For the whole of the Republic is characterized by great temperature fluctuations, as the daily and annual. In the lowland part, the average annual and average monthly temperatures change from North to South, and in the high mountain areas with the elevation of the area above sea level.
The average annual air temperature in the whole plain-low-mountain part of the Republic is positive. In the North, the temperature is + 0.4° C, in the extreme South reaches + 13.7° C. in the mountainous areas with the rise up, the average temperature decreases.
The coldest month in Kazakhstan is January. Its average temperature in the North (Petropavlovsk) - 18,7° C, in the South - 1,5° C. Sometimes in the North of the Republic frosts reach - 54° C, and in the South the temperature rarely falls below - 30° C. the coldest place in Kazakhstan is The Atbasar district, where the temperature reached - 57° C. the Average monthly temperature in July on the territory of Kazakhstan. 
In winter, warm air masses sometimes penetrate the territory of the Republic from the South, which in the southern areas increase the temperature to +10° C, and in the North to +5° C. as a result, a thaw occurs for several days. Then there is a cold snap, which leads to the formation of ice.
This causes great harm to agriculture, especially livestock, because cattle, located at this time in the steppe, can not produce their own food from under the ice crust. 
The distribution of the average monthly January temperature in the highlands is different from that in the plains. In winter, it is cold on the territory of Kazakhstan, dry continental Arctic temperate air and Siberian anticyclone dominate.
The cooling lower air layers in the foothills have a lower temperature than in the mountains. In January, in mountainous areas, the average temperature rises as it rises, in the highlands it falls again. For example, in the vicinity of Kapchagai 430 meters above sea level, the average temperature in January is 11.4°C, and in Almaty 848 meters above sea level-8.0° C.
On Medeu 1529 meters above sea level-4.9° C, and in the Big Almaty lake 2527 meters above sea level it falls to - 9.5° C. the warmest month in Kazakhstan – July. The average temperature in July in the North of the Republic in Petropavlovsk + 18,8°C, in the South in Darbaz + 28,8. In summer, the heat distribution is affected by the angle of incidence of sunlight and the degree of heating of the earth's surface.
Therefore, with the approach to the South, the temperature rises markedly. The highest temperature in the North does not exceed + 41° C, and in the South + 47° C. in the mountainous regions of the middle-July temperature decreases. For example, in Almaty + 22,3°C, on Medeu + 18,5°C, in Ust-Gorelnik + 14,6°C, in the area of the Big Almaty lake + 11,4°C. 
Despite the fact that in the summer in the mountains, the average monthly temperature above 0°C, there are days when it falls and frosts occur. The average annual temperature amplitude in the North of the Republic 38° - 40°, and in the South 30° - 35°. Daily temperature fluctuations in the North of Kazakhstan are quite significant. The average daily amplitude in January is about 9°C, and in summer it increases to 13°C.
In the South, the average daily amplitude in January is 9°C, in July 19°C. the Greatest daily temperature changes are observed in the summer in the deserts - there they reach 30°. In General, the temperature regime of Kazakhstan, despite the sharp fluctuations, is favorable for agriculture. 
Distribution of atmospheric precipitation on the territory of Kazakhstan. Basically, Kazakhstan is a dry country. As shown on the climate map, the amount of precipitation in Kazakhstan is insignificant and they are unevenly distributed. This is due to the remoteness of the Republic from the Atlantic ocean and the location in the Central part of the continent of Eurasia. The average annual rainfall in Kazakhstan ranges from 130 mm to 1600 mm.
Thus, in the areas located in the North-East of the Aral sea and in the Western part of lake Balkhash, only 130 mm of precipitation falls, in some years even less. The greatest amount of precipitation falls in the Western Altai. In the lowland part of the Republic the amount of atmospheric precipitation decreases from North to South.
In the North, precipitation is slightly more than 400 mm (in Petropavlovsk - 425 mm), in the Central strip - up to 275 mm, in the South - up to 130 mm.the amount of precipitation decreases from West to East. In the West, in the area of Uralsk, falls 374 mm, and in the East, in the area of Zaisan basin 200 mm. High-mountain areas receive more precipitation than low-mountain plains.
The mountainous areas in the East and South-East of the Republic are more humid. On the windward slopes of the mountains rainfall of 500 mm or more, and in the upper reaches of the river Small Ulba in the Altai - 1600 mm. Annual distribution of atmospheric precipitation on the territory of Kazakhstan and uneven seasons. In the Northern part 70-80% of annual precipitation falls in the warm season, most of them in July.
In the southern desert zone and at the foot of the mountains in the East and South-East there is a minimum of summer precipitation. In the southern regions of the Republic in the summer for 2 - 3 months in some years there is no precipitation. At this time, there are so-called "dry" rain when the raindrops, not reaching the earth's surface, evaporate.
Summer rains are often accompanied by thunderstorms and lightning. There is less rainfall during the cold season. Therefore, the snow cover is also insignificant. In winter, 20-30% falls in the North of the Republic, and in the South - 50-60% of the annual rate. This is due to cyclones often passing through the southern regions. In Kazakhstan, the duration of occurrence and thickness of snow cover are different.
If in the North the average snow thickness is 20-30 cm and it lies 125-165 days, in the South the snow thickness is 10-15 cm and it remains 40 - 60 days. In mountainous areas, the duration of occurrence and thickness of snow depends on the height. For example, on Mynzhylky (N-3036) in Zailiysky Alatau snow cover reaches 90 cm thickness, and snow can lie 230 days.

The amount of precipitation on the territory of Kazakhstan still does not mean its sufficient moisture. Moisture also depends on the amount of evaporation. If the amount of evaporation is less than the annual amount of precipitation, there is an excess of humidity, and, conversely, if the amount of evaporation exceeds the annual amount of precipitation, there is a lack of moisture.
For example, the moisture coefficient close to the unit is observed in the Northern forest-steppe zone of the Republic. In Kazakhstan, everywhere, except in the highlands, the annual evaporation rate is several times higher than the annual rainfall. For example, in Turkestan (southern Kazakhstan) the evaporation rate is 1250 mm, and the annual precipitation is 238 mm.
The coefficient of moisture is 0.19, which indicates a large dry climate. The coefficient of moisture makes it possible to explain the patterns of natural areas, to determine the ratio between the amount of heat and moisture, the location of plant and soil areas, the causes of the density of the network of rivers and lakes, as well as allows you to properly zone moisture-loving and drought-resistant crops.
The impact of climate on human life and economic activity in Kazakhstan. The climate has a great influence on the development of agriculture. The climate of Kazakhstan is characterized by its aridity.
Especially hot in the summer in the South. The surface of the sand is sometimes heated to 60-70°C. the formation of dry is associated with the predominance of highly heated dry tropical air masses. Its duration varies in different natural areas.
The dangerous atmospheric phenomena include ice, mainly ice is formed in: in the steppe zone-5-10 days a year, semi-desert zone-40, in the desert zone-100 days.
In order to combat drought and dry lands, special agrotechnical measures are carried out, such as snow retention, forest planting, irrigation and other frosty days after drizzling rains. Usually in spring and autumn, when it becomes cool, the surface of the earth is cooled to 0°C and covered with a thin transparent layer of ice (5 mm).
Because of the ice, the number of accidents on the roads that harm agriculture is increasing dramatically. Ice was often observed in the southern and Central regions of the Republic. In the Northern regions, ice is a rare phenomenon. In the West, in the Central and South-Eastern regions of the Republic, the thickness of ice reaches 22 mm. 
A peculiar atmospheric phenomenon observed in the territory of Kazakhstan is a dust storm.
The occurrence of the storm is directly dependent on the wind speed and the nature of the soil cover. Dust storms and winds that blow in dry weather in areas with easily deflated soil.
Blowing off grains of soil, dust storms expose the roots of plants and cause great harm to agriculture. The number of days with a dust storm in the desert zone of Kazakhstan is on average 20-38, in the deserts of the South of the Republic and in the area of lake Balkhash dust storms are 55 - 60 days. In the South-East and in the Eastern mountains of the Republic dust storms are not observed mainly because the surface of these places is rocky clay. 
To adverse weather conditions are freezing. They are usually observed in late spring, early autumn, in the North and sometimes in summer days as a result of the invasion of Arctic air masses. In winter, the air temperature drops sharply below zero, which leads to freezing of the upper soil layers. Frost cause great harm to crops, fruit trees. 
The result is mainly in the Northern and Central parts of Kazakhstan. Here the probability of repetition of frosts (for corn, wheat, cucumbers, pears, etc.) falls on 5 years out of 10, in the desert area (for cotton, grapes, flowers and fruits) for 4 years out of 10.
Agro-climatic resources of Kazakhstan. Since ancient times, it is known that the existence of people, plants and animals need light, heat, moisture, air and other natural elements. On the territory of Kazakhstan, solar heat is enough to ripen all crops without exception. At average daily temperature, the total amount varies considerably from 2000 to 2100°, and in the South from 4300 to 4600°. 
In the Northern part of the Republic, where the average daily temperature exceeds +10°C, the vegetation period lasts 130 - 135 days. Here climatic resources are suitable for growing wheat, flax, vegetables, fruits and melons. In the South of the Republic the growing period is more than 180 days.
The abundance of sunlight allows to grow here such irrigated crops as cotton, tobacco, grapes, sugar beet, etc.
Climate-forming factors in Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan's climate is determined by three factors: solar radiation, atmospheric circulation and underlying surface. 
Solar radiation in Kazakhstan. The average annual duration of sunshine in Kazakhstan is very long (2000 - 3000 hours). For example, in the North, in Kostanay, it is 2132 hours.
This is more than in Moscow, located at the same latitude, for 400 hours. And in the South, in Kyzylorda, this figure is 3062 hours. Such values are explained not only by the latitude of southern Kazakhstan, but also by the fact that in the warm season there is no cloudiness. Solar radiation is associated with the patterns of distribution of clear and cloudy days in Kazakhstan. It is established that the number of clear days in the year in the North is 120, in the South - 260. The number of clear days in Kazakhstan is greater than on the southern coast of Crimea and the black sea coast.
And cloudy days in the North 60, in the South, in the region of Balkhash-about 10 days. The total radiation also changes. If it is in the North of Kazakhstan is 100 kcal/cm2 per year, in the South - 155 kcal / cm2. The total radiation is unevenly distributed over the seasons. In the South of Kazakhstan, the total radiation is 1518 kcal/cm2 in July and 4 times less in January.
In winter, the total radiation of the earth's surface is partially reflected. White pure snow reflects the total radiation by 70-80%. In winter, due to the small angle of incidence of sunlight and the shortness of the day, the ability of snow cover to reflect the sun's rays, the value of solar radiation is reduced. 
Atmosphere circulation in Kazakhstan. Atmospheric circulation over the territory of Kazakhstan is influenced by planetary circulation. For example, the increased zonal circulation of air in the Northern hemisphere leads to an increase in the flow of oceanic air masses from West to East, and for 2 - 2,5 days they reach Kazakhstan without significant changes.

At this time, i.e. during the zonal circulation, despite the location of the Republic in the center of Eurasia, the continental climate is weakening. Thus, atmospheric circulation over the territory of Kazakhstan is a part of the General circulation of the atmosphere. 
Air masses in Kazakhstan. The climate of the Republic is mainly influenced by three types of air masses: Arctic, temperate and tropical latitudes. Kazakhstan is located at a very long distance from the oceans.
The air masses formed over the Pacific and Indian oceans are not coming to Kazakhstan. The climate of Kazakhstan is influenced only by the Atlantic and Arctic oceans and their seas. The absence of mountain barriers allows air masses to move freely from North to South and from West to East. Arctic air masses are formed over the Arctic ocean in the Arctic and on coastal land and Islands.
Arctic continental air, formed over the Arctic ocean, is characterized by low temperatures in winter and summer with a low moisture content. The air is very transparent dry.
With its invasion from the North in the territory of Kazakhstan (mainly in winter) set anticyclone weather. Arctic continental air often penetrates to the South of the Republic in the off-season, it is associated with spring and autumn frosts.
Air masses of moderate latitudes are formed in the middle latitudes of the continent. Kazakhstan is completely located in the southern part of the temperate climatic zone, so the air is dominated by temperate latitudes. Coming from the West, from the Atlantic ocean, the temperate air is called the sea moderate. After covering a good distance, he loses a lot of moisture gets in Kazakhstan has considerably withered.
Nevertheless, it brings the main part of precipitation from the West, falling in the Republic. The moisture in the lower part of the air is lost on the road and little rain falls on the plains. The moisture contained in the upper layers falls in large quantities on the Western, North-Western slopes of the mountain areas. This air mass in the winter, softens the frost, and in summer moderates the heat.
If the mass of temperate air formed over the mainland Eurasia, in particular over Kazakhstan, it is called continental temperate air. Tropical air masses come to Kazakhstan from the territory of Central Asia and Iran. Continental tropical air is also called the Iranian air masses. 
In summer, they penetrate to the extreme southern regions of Kazakhstan and reach the line connecting the Northern shores of the Aral sea and lake Balkhash. More precisely, cover the territory of Kyzylorda, South Kazakhstan, Zhambyl and Almaty regions. In summer, over the territory of Kazakhstan formed continental tropical air. 
This is the local continental Turan air, formed by changing the temperate air, as well as tropical air, invading here from the South. This type of air is usually observed in the Caspian lowland, in southern Kazakhstan and the Turan lowland.
This air is hot, dry and therefore dusty. Air pressure in Kazakhstan. On the vast territory of Kazakhstan, atmospheric pressure is unevenly distributed. The distribution of air pressure in the flat part and in the mountain regions of the Republic is particularly sharply different. The main reason for the diversity of pressure in the uneven distribution of solar heat on The earth's surface.
Therefore, in the territory of the Republic there is a good change in atmospheric pressure at the times of the year. In summer, when the air is very hot, its volume expands, and it becomes lighter. Under these conditions, a low-pressure area is formed on The earth's surface in the summer months. In winter, on the contrary, the area of high pressure. 
The increase in atmospheric pressure in the territory of Kazakhstan by winter is due to a decrease in solar heat, a decrease in air temperature, the beginning of the invasion of Arctic air masses and the formation of the Siberian anticyclone. The decrease in air pressure by summer is explained by the strong heating of the surface layers of the atmosphere, the retreat of the Arctic air and the invasion of the southern tropical air masses. 
Over the flat part of Kazakhstan passes, as it rises above sea level. We can observe climate map distribution lines isobars. The average annual air pressure in Astana is 977 MB (millibars), in Atyrau - 1022 MB, in the South in Kyzylorda - 1003 MB, in the mountains the air pressure is less. In Almaty (848 m)-920 MB, in the Upper Chamber (H - 2253) - 776 MB.
In winter, when the Siberian maximum is set (high pressure area), the air pressure increases. For example, in Astana - 983 MB, in Atyrau - 1026 MB. in July, the air pressure decreases: in Astana 943 MB, in Atyrau-1012 MB.   
Winds in Kazakhstan. In Kazakhstan, the spread of wind is associated with the spread of atmospheric pressure and terrain. The influence of wind on the climate is enormous. It moves the air masses.
The territory of Kazakhstan from East to West at 50° C. sh. the Voeikov axis crosses the high-pressure strip. It is the South-Western spur of the Siberian anticyclone. It is a high pressure strip in both winter and summer is an important wind section for the flat part of the Republic. In winter, from this high pressure strip to the North, South and South-West winds prevail, and to the South - North and North-East winds. 
As you move away from this high pressure strip, the wind speed decreases. As the cold atmospheric front approaches, the warm wind rushes upwards, causing unstable weather. 
In January in Central Kazakhstan, the average monthly wind speed was 4 - 6 m/s, while in southern Kazakhstan it is reduced to 4 - 2 m/s in Summer, the wind speed decreases. Mean monthly wind speed in July in the North is 2 - 3 m/s, in the South - 1-2 m/s In the mountainous regions of Kazakhstan in winter and summer distribution of wind flows quite lively.
The main types of winds in the mountains - mountain valley. They blow in summer and change their direction twice during the day (in the morning - from the plain, in the evening and at night - from the mountains).
In the intermountain valleys and depressions, for example, in places such as the Jungar gate and the ili valley, local winds are observed. Winds blow through the Jungar gate - Saikan and abi, and in the ili valley - Chilik wind. Winds with a speed of 20 m/s and 72 km/h, called strong.
Discuss the characteristics of winds with a speed of 30 - 60 m/s. EBI Wind blowing over the basin of lake Ebinur that in the South-East Zhetysu Alatau, set a high pressure, and on the territory of Kazakhstan over the Alakol - low pressure. The Zhungar gate is a narrow tectonic crack with a width of 3 km. the Air during the passage through the narrow passage between the mountain ranges is subjected to friction, and its speed reaches 60 - 80 m/s.
In winter, compressed air has a temperature of 8-10° C higher than in the surrounding areas. Therefore, it refers to warm winds. In General, this wind blows on average about 70-100 days a year. In summer, when the mainland of Eurasia is heated, high pressure is rarely installed over the basin of lake EBI-Nur. Wind abi first described Shokan Ualikhanov. The strong wind that blows through the Jungar gate from the lake EBI-Nur, complicates fishing in the lakes of the Alakol group, complicates the work of transport and harms other farms. 
Wind Saikan blows through the Jungar gate to Central Asia and in the opposite direction. When the Alakol lake set a high pressure anticyclone intensifies and Seikan wind blowing from the North-West to South-East side of the lake EBI-Nur. 
The wind speed reaches 50 - 60 m/s In the basin of the lake Alakol, the temperature falls to – 30 - 37°C. because the wind blows from the ridge Sikan, it is called Sicinski wind. The wind blows strongly in September and April, and other times of the year calms down. When the wind is strong, the water level of Alakol lake rises to 1 meter, and can cause great harm. Cicansky the wind may take 2 - 3 days.
It forms a strong snow-storms, and dries out the soil, damage to livestock, fisheries, destroys the roads, causes damage to the transport. Chilean mountain valley wind is formed from the movement of cold air from the glaciers at the source of the river Chilik in the Ili valley. The wind blows along the river valley: day from North-West to South-East, and at night in the opposite direction. 
The wind speed for the whole year is equal to 8 - 10 m/s in the Winter wind, amplifying forms, snow drifts and impedes traffic. Arystandy-Karabashsky the wind. This mountain-valley wind blows along the valley of the river Arystandy, located on the South-Western slope of the Karatau ridge. The wind blows from the North-East to the South-West. 
When passing over Moyynqum, capturing the grains of sand, forming a sand storm, reducing visibility.
People call it "Karabas wind" - in Kazakh - "black head". It is strong because, firstly, when crossing the mountain pass between Kyzyltu and Shakpak, the air flow speed increases, and secondly, in the valley of the Arystand river, its strength becomes even stronger. Arystandy - Karabashsky the wind continuously blows from the North. Its speed is 35 m/s.

Kurday wind blows over Kurday pass, located in the South-East of Zhambyl region, between the mountains of Kindiktas and zhetyzhol ridge. Its speed reaches 40 m/s (144 km / h), when the Siberian anticyclone is installed on the territory of Kazakhstan in winter.
On average, a strong wind is blowing 55 days a year. The mugodzhar the wind blows in the area of the Mugodzhar mountains. Air masses coming from the West or North-West, can not completely pass through the Ural mountains and part of them goes around from the South Mugodzhar mountains. 
The emergence of this wind is associated with relief and atmospheric circulation. The Mugodzhar the speed of the wind reaches 50 m/s and then it turns into a strong storm. This wind is observed in Aktobe, Atyrau, Mangystau regions. 
In the analysis of the geographical distribution of the wind speed on the territory of Kazakhstan as a rule, special attention is given to the winds which are over 4 m/s. Because the winds are considered suitable for the use of wind turbines. In Kazakhstan North of the Aral-Balkhash latitude the wind speed exceeds 4 m/s. the Energy of the winds, 1 billion kW. In Kazakhstan, wind turbines are used to lift water from wells.